Dealing Ear Infections And Sinusitis – Ear Problems

Children, teens and adults are susceptible to ear infections and other related ear problems, of course they can be more prominent with children as their immune systems are not as strong. With adults however, things like problems with sinuses can cause terrible pain. In fact many adults suffering with ear problems put it down to getting a cold, picking up an infection, listening to music too loudly, whereas is could be a sign of a sinus problem, and may lead to problems with the tubes in ears.

You should seek medical advice, wither from your local doctor or nurse if you have the following problems that are consistent or last for quite a while, these are:

-          Earache

-          Twinges in the ear

-          Noises in the ear

-          Sounds becoming muffled

Using an otoscope they are able to look into the ear to see if there are any underlying issues. People who are prone to sinus issues should have regular checkups, not only to keep an eye on the issue at hand but also to stop any damage occurring to the ear. One of the major issues being swelling; this can make hearing a problem, and if ignored or left for too long it could result in the hearing problems being permanent.

The nose and the ear are closely connected, which is why you will always get a cold and earache together; the Eustachian tube connects the two of them together, where it works to keep the pressure between the two the same.

Some people start to find that they get colds and ear infections a lot, and this could mean there is an underlying problem with the tubes in ears as they can change in angle. When this happens the Eustachian tubes can become swollen and fluid can build up behind the ear drum, creating the pain and even some loss of hearing.

Someone who has sinusitis needs to first concentrate on dealing with that infection first, stopping any further build up and swelling, when they do this they can find that the earache can quickly heal itself, in some cases where it is more severe, antibiotic ear drops and pain killers are prescribed to further help with the pain and also clear the ear canal.

In more severe cases for young children, a surgical procedure may have to be performed, this is where tubes in ears are placed to aid the following:

-          Release pressure through the ear canal

-          Reduce and allow fluid build up to drain from the ear

-          Allowing air to the middle ear

The tubes used are made of plastic and are usually inserted under a general anaesthetic, carried out by an otolaryngologist. They help to relieve some of the pain and discomfort felt by the patient and can also help to stop ear infections from re-occurring, and it is said that the younger they are to have this type of procedure the better it is for them, with higher success rates.

So don’t suffer in silence if you have a problem with your ears, get them checked out to prevent further damage from happening that cannot be reversed.

Tubes In Ears: What Is It? – Short Term

Though most infections in ears are either viral and resolve on their own or bacterial and are treated by antibiotics, there are cases that result to a chronic problem that may affect hearing, behavior or even speech. In more dangerous cases, tubes in ears are recommended.


Tubes in ears are placed through the ear drum, and are shaped like tiny cylinders; they are placed in the ear to primarily let the air into it. There are various names of the tubes used such as tympanostomy tubes, ventilation tubes, myringotomy tubes and pressure equalization tubes. The tubes can be made out of different materials and they may contain a coating to reduce infection. There are two types of tubes used and these are the short-term and long-term tubes.


  • Short-term tubes in ears are smaller. They normally stay in place for about 6 months to a year before they fall out on their own.


  • It may be necessary for the long-term tubes to be removed by the specialist though they can fall out on their own.


Who Needs Tubes In Ears?


It is often recommended when the patient experiences constant middle ear infection or suffers from hearing loss due to the presence of fluid to have this carried out. Children are common target of these conditions; however, teenagers as well as adults can also be sufferers. There are several surgeries performed each year that makes it the most usual childhood operation performed with anesthesia. The average age of children that would most likely undergo the operation is one to three years old. Inserting the tubes is done to decrease the possibility of ear infection in the future, restore hearing loss due to the fluid in the ear, improve speech and balance problems and improve behavior problems as well as sleep problems caused by constant infections in the ears.


How Are The Tubes Inserted?


Inserting tubes in ears is done through a procedure known as myringotomy. It is an outpatient procedure where an incision in the ear drum is made using microscope and the use of a small scalpel, in some case a laser treatment can also be used. Since the small hole would easily heal and close within a few days, the ear tube is placed inside the incision to keep it open and allow the air to reach the middle ear. The procedure in which ear tubes are inserted is common and safe, but with possible minimal complications. Some of the complications that may be experienced include perforation, scarring, infection and the tubes may come out too early or stay in too long.


It is important for the patients to have follow-up visits to the specialist to make sure that the tubes in ears are inserted properly and to know if their condition has improved because of the surgery. After the surgical procedure is done, patients would need to take extra care of their ears. If there are discomforts experienced after the procedure, then the patients would have to let the doctor know about the pain to get some treatment.




Tubes In Ears: Benefits And Expectations – Ear Infections


Many children can suffer with infections and illnesses, one in particular is the ear infection, in some case it can be a real problem and can cause fluid to stay behind the eardrums; these children may be recommended to have  a tubes in ears to address their condition. The tubes put on ears are plastic and have a shape like a hollow spool. An otolaryngologist or a doctor specializes on this condition places the tubes through a surgical opening in the eardrum. During the surgery, the child is unconscious and is injected with a general anesthesia.


Reasons For Using Tubes In Ears


The tubes in ears are used when someone suffers from ear infections. They can help with this condition because:


  • Tubes in ears allow the air to enter the middle ear.
  • They allow to flow out of the middle part of the ear into the ear canal.
  • They are capable of restoring hearing and clearing fluid from the middle ear.
  • They can also prevent the buildup of fluid in the future while they are placed.
  • They reduce pain by decreasing the feeling of pressure in the ear.


The tubes are done to keep the infections in the ears from recurring. Doctors may consider surgery if a child experiences hearing loss in both ears or there is fluid behind the eardrum for more than 3 months.  It is usually done if a child has frequent ear infections.


What To Expect After The Operation


There are expectations after the surgery and some of them include:


  • Children who had the surgery may go home after the surgery, but must be within 1 to 2 hours after the operation. They can probably return to school the next day.


  • It is essential to have a follow-up visits after the insertion of the tubes in ears. Besides, the doctor has to know if their hearing has improved or the tubes are working properly.


  • The children need to take care of their ears while the tubes are in place. When they take a bath or go swimming, parents should make sure that the water will not go inside the ear since they may get infections because of the germs in the water.


  • The children may use ear plugs if the doctor approves. In addition, the doctor would tell when the eardrum is healed or when it is okay for the children to return to their regular water activities.


  • The tubes usually remain for 6 to 12 months, and they frequently fall out on their own. The children may undergo operation to remove the tubes if they do not fall out on their own. The parents must check for signs of infection or fluid behind the eardrum after the tubes are out.


Children may suffer from ear infections, and this condition is somehow addressed by using tubes in ears. Though the insertion of tubes helps, there are possible minor complications that may be encountered. Since the children’s sense of hearing is at risk when infections are evident or they suffer from a case in which the fluid stays behind the eardrum, it is important to consider effective means to address this condition. It is essential for the patients to take extra care in order to prevent more damage in the future.


An Easy Guide To Understand The Phases Of Mitosis – Cells

There are some subjects throughout the world that baffle us, things like how mechanisms work, to math and equations. The working of cells and biology is another area that many of us know about, but don’t actually know the sequence of events to create new things. The problem that we can have if we want to find out more about these subjects is the long words and sentences that may seem to get us more confused than before. So here is a simple guide to the phases of mitosis, even your kids can find this easy to learn.

In any living thing we have cells, and at some point these cells need to duplicate themselves and there are two ways in which this is done the first being Meiosis and the other Mitosis, and as said we are going to be looking at the latter.
Put in simple terms it is where cells duplicate themselves along with all its parts that it comes with, the biggest being the duplication of DNA, where the original cell is the mother that then makes two duplications known as the daughter cells. They all carry the same genes and are identical in every way. During this duplication the cell goes through different phases, the phases of mitosis, and there are 5 of them, so let’s look at them in more detail.

The First Stage – Prophase
The beginning of the duplication, the cell realises it needs to divide so it starts to get ready in preparation for this; this involves getting all the different parts into the right places and positions

The Second Stage – Metaphase
As all the parts of the cell are in its right places for them to be duplicated, the DNA aligns itself along the centre of the cell, the different parts then send out tubules which reach out and connect directly to the centromere, this is where the DNA has also changed and has split into the two chromosomes and connected in the centre.

The Third Stage – Anaphase
In this stage the cells now start to make their separation, the chromosomes are pulled away from each other, with them reaching the opposite sides of the cell.

The Forth Stage – Telophase
Now the chromosomes have reached the sides they need to be separated from the main cell, its membrane closes around them as they exit and closes them up making them separate, so there is now two cells each having one half of the mother cell’s DNA

The Fifth And Final Stage – Interphase
This is where the cells settle down and rest after going through all the above stages, they will start to prepare themselves for when they need to divide themselves, getting all its parts together and making sure it can survive in its new environment and take on the energy and nutrients it needs.
So there is all you need to know about cell separation and the phases of mitosis, in a very simple way that is easy to understand and also ideal to be able to pass onto your kids, should they need it.

Learning Biology: Understand The Phases Of Mitosis – Cell

In biology, the method in which a cell separates the chromosomes along with its cell nucleus, which goes into two identical sets in separate nuclei is called mitosis. It only happens in eukaryotic cells and different species have different processes. The mitotic process is highly complex and its sequence of events is categorized into different stages or phases.


The Phases Of Mitosis


  • Prophase

This is the change that takes place as the chromatin fibers coiled into the chromosomes; with each of the chromosomes having 2 chromatids at a centromere, a chromosome region that joins two identical copies of a single chromosome. The mitotic spindle forms in the cytoplasm (contents outside the nucleus and within the cell membrane. In the later prophase stage the nuclear casing will break up and the chromosomes start to migrate to the cell center.


  • Prometaphase

This phase starts with the fragmentation of the nuclear envelope; this phase is considered a dynamic part of the cell cycle. As microtubules grow out of the centrosomes, they assemble and disassemble rapidly and seek attachment sites at kinetochores (complex platelike structures that assemble during prometaphase).


  • Metaphase

This is one of the phases of mitosis whereby the centromeres of all the chromosomes of the cell line up at the spindle equator in which the spindle fully develops. Since chromosomes can be visualized easily at this phase, this phase is useful in cytogenetics.


  • Anaphase

There is an abrupt separation of sister chromatids or the paired chromosomes as the cells progress into this phase. For the changes that start to happen in the  anaphase, the paired centromeres begin to move apart, and each of the sister chromatids that are separated from one another is considered a full chromosome, and they are called the daughter chromosomes.


  • Telophase

Telophase is where the polar fibers continue to lengthen that elongate the cell even more. In addition, the nuclei start to form at two opposite poles. There is a formation of a new nuclear membrane around each set of the daughter chromosomes that are separated from each other. However, the membrane does not enclose the centrosome.


The process of mitosis ends with the last phase called telophase or when the chromosomes reach the poles. There is a separate process known as cytokinesis that is frequently mistaken to be the last part of telophase. Cytokinesis is the process in which as single eukaryotic cell’s cytoplasm is divided in order to form two daughter cells, and is an essential part for completing cell division.


Mitosis is important in the development and growth of a multi-cellular body in which it increases the cells within an organism. There are cells that are replaced by new ones and mitosis formed them as well as the exact copies of the replaced cells. Regeneration of parts of the body is possible through mitosis. With this process, there are some organisms that can create their offspring through the amazing asexual reproduction; so when studying biology this is an important part of learning understand how mitosis works.

What Are The Different Phases Of Mitosis? – Separate Process


When it comes to matters associated with maintaining life in biology, a term for cell division known as mitosis is one important subject that is usually discussed. It is basically about the process by which the cells undergo phases of cell multiplication, and which there is a division in the nucleus of the cell, resulting in having two sets of identical chromosomes. There are different phases of mitosis that you must familiarize.


The Phases Of Mitosis


When knowing about the mitotic phases, it is important to understand each phase properly for better learning. The phases are:


Interphase: The mitotic phase is the short period of the cell cycle in whichchanges from short to much longer interphases for the preparation for cell division. During this interphase there are 3 phases which are divided and these are G1, which is the first gap, S (synthesis) and G2, which is the second gap; as proteins are created in each of these phases the cell grows. However, it is only in the Synthesis phase where the replication of the chromosomes occur, as each cell grows in the first gap and continues to do so as in the this phase. Then, it prepares more for mitosis in the second gap and it divides before restarting the cycle.


Preprophase: This is one of the phases of mitosis in the plant cells only in which the cell reamins where it is and the nucleus moves aroun it before the start of mitosis through the formation of a phragmosome. In this formation, pre-prophase is the formation of microtubules ring and pre-prophase band under the plasma membrane.


Prophase: Typically, the nucleus genetic material is in chromatin; the chromatin fibers become coiled at the onset of this phase, resulting to discrete chromosomes.


Prometaphase: This is one of the phases of mitosis that is sometimes referred to as part of the end of prophase and an early stage of metaphase. The nuclear membrane during the early prometaphase disintegrates. In addition, the microtubules occupy the nuclear space. During the late phase known as prometaphase each chromosome forms two kinetochores.


Metaphase: The spindle develops fully and the chromosomes align at the plate, which is a plate that is distant from two poles of spindle.


Anaphase: The cell goes into the anaphase when the chromosomes have lined up at the plate and the kinetochores are attached to a cluster of microtubules.


Telophase: As one of the phases of mitosis, telophase is a reversal of events in prophase and prometaphase. The polar microtubules elongate the cell even more as they continue to lengthen at this phase.


Cytokinesis: This is often mistakenly thought as the final phase of telophase, but it is a separate process that begins at the same time as the telophase. Technically, this process is not even a phase of mitosis, but a necessary separate process for the completion of the cell division.


Mitosis is essential when maintaining sets of chromosomes. It occurs in several circumstances including the development and growth, replacement of the cell, regeneration and asexual reproduction. Since there are different phases of mitosis and each phase has its own occurrences, it would be necessary to pay attention to all of them.


The Process Of Having A Pegtube – Procedure

There are many different illnesses in the world today and then there are the different procedures used in helping to alleviate these illnesses; one type of procedure that many people do not about is the use of the Pegtube. To begin to understand what this is we need to look at certain areas starting with what PEG is in the first place.

PEG is short for Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastroscopy and is a procedure that is carried out when a person needs to be given, fluids, food or medication directly to the stomach; the tube is inserted through the skin and straight to the stomach. It is used in cases where the patient is unable to swallow foods even via a tube which would normally go through the nose and down to the stomach. Also there are some people who require to be feed this way for a long time, so to help them feel more comfortable they are given the choice to have the Pegtube inserted.

Before having this procedure it is best to speak with your doctors and get as much information as possible about, how the surgery will be carried out, the benefits it is going to give you and also any side effects. The best thing to do is to make a list of questions you feel are important to get answered, although your doctor will cover everything, there may be certain points you wish to clarify. The doctor can also show you the tube that is going to be used so that you can fully understand where is will go and how it is going to look and of course how to use it.

When you are all booked in for your procedure you will be informed of what to do the day before, in regards to what you can and can’t eat or drink, in most cases you cannot have anything at least 6 hours before, although you may be allowed to drink water and other fluids up to about 2 hours before, this can vary so check this out.

The procedure does not require you to be put to sleep fully, you will be given a local anaesthetic so that you cannot feel the procedure on your tummy, and you may also be given a spray anaesthetic for your throat as the procedure does require a endoscopic camera to go down through the mouth to the stomach. Normally a procedure like this can take around 20-30 minutes to be completed, and some doctors will place a bandage upon the area in which the tube has been placed.

Each person’s recovery after this procedure is going to be different, and in many cases you will be given pain killers, some people find that they can be quite sore for a week or so, whereas others it can last only a couple of hours. Once you are feeling up to it you will be given something to eat and drink, you must remember to take this slowly so as not to cause any issues. Whilst in the hospital you will be shown how to use and take care of the tube, other family members can also be taught this too, and you can start to make a speedy recovery.



Before, During And After The Pegtube Placement – Incision Area

When someone suffers from the inability to eat and drink normally, a procedure called Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or PEG is done in which it places a pegtube into the stomach as a means for feeding.


Pegtube And The PEG Procedure


There are several ways to prepare for the procedure days before pegtube insertion. Since there are cases in which the patients are asked to stop taking medications, it is important they inform their doctors about their medication intake. They may be asked to discontinue taking medications that may increase bleeding. Since the reaction to anesthesia is a potential risk of having this procedure, it is essential that they inform their doctors if they or someone in their family has a history of the said reaction to prevent higher risks from happening. They may be asked to stop smoking before the procedure if they smoke. There are instructions given by the doctor on days before the surgery on when to stop eating and drinking.  A simple question like asking the doctor if they are allowed to take their regular medication with a sip of water is important.


The pegtube placement is a simple procedure that is commonly done under sedation and with the use of local anesthesia. The patients have IV or an intravenous line in their hand or arm to receive medications as well as fluids. In addition, they may be given medication that makes them sleepy and pain medication through the IV. Patients may also be given antibiotics if necessary. Any dentures must be removed before the procedure. In order to avoid gagging from the endoscope, there is a numbing medicine sprayed into the throat, and a mouth guard may be inserted as well. It takes about 20 minutes for the actual procedure to take place. The things that are going on during the procedure include:


  • The abdomen is cleaned and a local anesthesia is injected.
  •  The endoscope is placed into the stomach.
  • There is a small cut made through the skin and into the stomach.
  • There is an opening in which the pegtube is inserted.
  • The tube is positioned inside the stomach with the help of a cap or a special balloon.
  • There is a small dressing placed at the new opening.


After The Procedure:


When the procedure is done, the patients are taken to the recovery room. If they are able to go home on the day of the surgery, then there must be someone else to drive their home and stay with them during the early period of recovery. After the procedure, they may expect the following:


  • There is a feeling of pain and it would be relieved by following the instructions given by the doctor for pain control.
  • The dressing can be removed after one or two days.
  • Since the incision area takes some time to heal, about five days, the patients will be taught to clean the area with proper cleaning procedure. The incision area must be dried properly after cleaning and they may use a gauze pad to cover the area.
  • Though they can gradually return to their usual activities, there may be activity restrictions to consider. Thus, they can ask their doctors about the restrictions.
  • The use of the tube begins with clear fluids and it would develop to special formula feedings.


Patients to undergo PEG procedure must learn the things to do before the procedure. There are also expectations that they need to be aware of after the pegtube placement.

What You Need To Know About The Pegtube Procedure – Peg Procedure

PEG or Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a medical procedure in which a pegtube is passed through the abdominal wall or the boundaries of the abdominal cavity into the stomach to feed patients who are not capable of oral feed intake. This endoscopic procedure does not require a general anesthetic. Typically, the procedure uses mild sedation.


A pegtube is a feeding tube that is positioned through the abdomen into the stomach. During the procedure, the surgeon uses an endoscope to see the inside of the stomach while the procedure is being performed. In order to receive medicines, fluids and nutrition when it cannot be taken orally, the pegtube will be put into the stomach for months or years. The patients must inform the doctor if the tube comes out since the opening will close quickly.


Several Conditions For Pegtube Usage


There are cases in which patients cannot eat or drink properly through their mouth and that is why, a PEG procedure is performed. A pegtube is used to meet the nutrition needs of the patients. Aside from providing a means of feeding, this feeding tube is also capable of preventing aspiration. This dangerous condition may occur when there is difficulty swallowing and the patients would breathe food as well as liquids into their lungs. Other conditions in which this tube is recommended include:


  • Stroke
  • birth defects
  • swallowing problems
  • mouth or esophagus cancer
  • diseases of the esophagus


If the patients have a long-term condition, then this tube may be placed to allow them to swallow. They must be able to digest food in normal condition once the food reaches their stomach in order to have the PEG procedure. The tube may not be a permanent means in some cases like when the patients recover from a minor stroke. The average life of the tube takes about one year. For the tube replacement, the procedure can be done even without the use of anesthesia or surgery. Though the PEG tube placement is a simple and safe procedure, there are still possible risks that may be encountered. The patients need to sign a consent form that explains the possible dangers as well as the advantages of the procedure and they should discuss it with their doctors. The potential risks of having this tube insertion may include the following:


  • Pain
  • reactions to the anesthesia
  • infection that spreads inside the abdomen
  • incision area bleeding
  • blockage of the tube
  • leakage of the stomach contents around the tube
  • bleeding or infection from damage to some other organs that are inside the abdomen


What Happens Before And After The Procedure


There are several things to keep in mind before the PEG procedure. Before the pegtube is placed, the patients have to tell their doctors about the medications they take to avoid suffering from risks. Their doctors will give them instructions before the surgery and they have to follow all of them as instructed by their doctors. After the procedure, the patients will be taken to the recovery room while they recover from anesthesia. Some of the expectations after the procedure may include feeling some pain at the incision or gas pain. To relieve the pain, the patients have to follow the doctor’s instructions for pain control.


What Are Electrolytes And How Do They Effect The Human Body? – Electrolyte Imbalance

For many of us we assume that our hearts, nervous system, bones and muscles and other internal organs keep our bodies working, in fact it is more complex than that. In all of our bodies we have electrolytes; these are electrical charges that help to keep our organs working and all our system to function effectively. There are some cases when people suffer with an imbalance of these electrolytes, which can be impacted by:

-          Stress

-          Illness

-          Diet

-          Medications

-          Climate

-          Exercise

The most common electrolyte imbalance symptoms can include the following:

-          Fatigue

-          Thirst

-          Dizziness

-          Disease

-          High or low blood pressure

-          Poor circulation

And this it does not just happen to those who we deem unfit, even athletes have known to collapse or suffer severe illnesses caused by these such imbalances; it is said to be due to the body temperature when working out or even partaking in their particular sport, as the body quickly goes from hot to cold or vice versa along with the use of their muscles.

The elderly and those who take regular medication can also be at risk, and so it is always best to keep in mind the electrolyte imbalance symptoms so that treatment can be given quickly to avoid any loss of life. The main culprits that can change and alter the electrolytes in the body include:

-          Diuretics

-          Tricyclic antidepressants

-          Antihistamines

-          Vasoconstrictors

-          Some tranquilizers

-          Beta blockers

A person can lose these much needed electrolytes through urination as well as through sweating, and it really can happen to any, when they are over exerting themselves. To help improve and keep the electrolytes from being lost it is important to drink plenty of fluid throughout your day, although not so much that you wash them away, around 8 glasses is the recommended amount to drink per day, but you must also make sure that salt levels in the body are present too, as you could wash them away, which can cause the imbalance to get worse. You can also find that some foods can increase the electrolytes, athletes will normally eat these kinds of foods before working out, like peanut butter on a bagel, or you can often see runners eating a banana as they get ready. Milk is another good item to take in your everyday diet; it provides a number of uses to the body and not just the calcium for our bones: milk can also provide the body with sodium, proteins, carbohydrates and potassium which all help to keep those electrolyte imbalance symptoms at bay.

To help this further there are some tablets that you can take to help balance out the electrolytes in the body. Some people are prescribed this medication due to other medications or illnesses they may already be suffering with, so that their electrolyte levels do not diminish. There is a lot of information out there, but the best advise if you feel you are displaying any electrolyte imbalance symptoms is to go and see your doctor or nurse to get checked out.